Here is a short guide in English about the Danish MAL-code regulations.
This guide is not exhaustive, and is translated without liability, and it is only to be used for giving foreign manufacturers or suppliers an idea of the rules for 1993 MAL-codes. For further information,
Brief information about Danish 1993 MAL codes:
The MAL-code must be evident from the product packaging or otherwise indicated in writing. The MAL-code was introduced in consideration of the working environment of painters, but can be a good guideline for DYI workers as well. The code tells you how to protect yourself against any health risk associated with working with the product. The code is used only in Denmark.
The MAL-code consists of two numbers attached by a hyphen. As an example, it could be 1-2. The first number indicates those safety measures you have to take as a minimum to avoid breathing fumes from the product’s content of volatile substances. The second number indicates those safety measures you have to take as a minimum to counteract the health risk associated with the product, if it comes into direct contact with the skin or the airways, or if ingested.
The number before the hyphen goes from 00 to 5, and the number after the hyphen goes from 1 to 6. The higher the number, the higher the need for safety precautions. Therefore, whenever possible, always select a product with the lowest code, i.e. 00-1.
Danish workers are familiar with the meanings of the various MAL codes, when they need to select personal protective measures.
The following areas are covered by the publication about MAL codes: Glues, including organic solvents used with glues: for construction work and the automotive business, for bodywork and airplane parts. Fillers, including joint filler, sealant and spackling paste, as well as putty for construction work and the automotive business, for bodywork and airplane parts. Printing inks, silkscreen color and products for graphic printing processes. Thinners used for the above mentioned products. Products used for preparation and finishing when working with above mentioned products, including degreasers, detergents, and color removers. Painting supplies, automotive paint and paint-like surface treatments.
We calculate Danish mal-codes - price 399.00 DKK. - each.
There is nothing wrong with adding MAL-codes to additional products, but it is not mandated by law.
Examples of substances/products that result in a MAL-code:
The first number indicates the danger if inhaled.
The first number can be:
· 00 - Water
· 0 – May contain minor amounts of solvents and water.
· 1 – May contain ethanol, IPA and solvent with a high boiling point in combination, etc.
2 – May, for instance, contain pure ethanol as well as solvents in combination.
3 – May, for example, contain pure petroleum or turpentine
· 4 – May contain pure xylene, acetone, etc.
· 5 - May contain pure touloul, trichloroethylene, cellulose solvent, etc.
The number after the hyphen indicates risk in case of skin and eye contact, and in case of ingestion through the nose and mouth.
· - 0 water
· - 1 Products without appreciable risk, but with risk when inhaling spray fumes, dust clouds, etc.
· - 2 Products with risk in case of ingestion and inhalation of spray fumes, dust clouds, etc., but with no risk in case of contact with skin and eyes.
· - 3 Products with risk in case of contact with skin and eyes and in case of inhalation of spray fumes, dust clouds, etc. The risk can also be
an allergic reaction.
· - 4 Products with risk of corrosion/burning, such as acids, caustic soda, slaked lime, etc.
· - 5 Products with risk of provoking a strong allergic reaction due to skin contact, or products with risk in case of contact with skin and eyes.
· - 6 Products with content that is toxic in case of contact with skin and eyes and by inhalation of spray fumes, dust clouds, etc., as well as
´ ingestion in small amounts.
For further information, please
Establishing of MAL-codes:
Several factors play a role in establishing MAL codes. Among them are classification of the product and the ingredients, potential steam pressure, and the Danish exposure levels list.
In the following, find a translation of “Order about working with code numbered products”.
Order of the Danish Working Environment Authority no. 302 of May 13, 1993 with later amendments – non-authorized compilation
THE COMPILATION includes order:
•no. 302 of May 13, 1993, effective September 1, 1993 and
•no. 1522 of December 15, 2010, effective, January 1, 2011.
According to § 17, sect. 3, § 35, sect. 1, § 39, sect. 1, no. 1, and sect. 2, § 41, sect. 1, no. 2, § 49, § 49 c, sect. 1, § 57 and § 84 of the Working Environment Act, cf. Act no. 646 of 18 December 1985, as amended by law no. 220 of 22 April 1987, Act no. 380 of 13 June 1990, law no. 373 of 20. May 1992, Act no. 474 of 24 June 1992 and to Act no. 177 of 14 April 1993, as well as to authorization according to § 73 of the Act, the following is provided:
Chapter 1 – Scope and Definitions
§ 1. This order covers work with those products mentioned in appendix 1 of the order, as well as preparation and completion in connection with such work.
Sect. 2. The order does not cover the manufacture of those products listed in appendix 1.
Sect. 3. This order makes no changes to specific requirements resulting from other Occupational Health and Safety regulations, such as rules regarding asbestos and about epoxy resins and isocyanates.
§ 2. The term "products" in this order covers those substances and materials mentioned in appendix 1.
§ 3. For the purposes of this order, the code number for a product is a code consisting of two numbers connected by a hyphen.
Sect. 2. The number before the hyphen indicates the minimum safety measures that need to be taken against inhaling fumes from the product’s content of volatile components, including organic solvents. The number after the hyphen indicates the minimum safety measures that need to be taken against the product coming into contact with skin or eyes, getting into airways, or being ingested.
§ 4. The order applies to any task done for an employer.
Sect. 2. Furthermore, this order applies to work covered by § 2, sect. 2, no. 2 and 3, in Occupational Health and Safety legislation, as well as work not done for an employer.
§ 5. Work with products covered by this order must be planned, organized, and carried out according to the rules in this order, as well as according to general Occupational Health and Safety regulations.
Chapter 2 – Code Number
§ 6. Before a product is delivered for the work in question, the importer, manufacturer, or dealer needs to establish a code number, cf. § 2 in order no. 301 of 13 May 1993 about establishing code numbers.
§ 7. The code number of a product must be indicated clearly on the packaging or must be otherwise conveyed in writing to the recipient. The effective year for the order, according to which the code number is established, must be indicated along with the code number. The code number must be indicated in user guides developed according to §§ 16 or 20 in order no. 540 of 2 September 1982 about substances and materials.
§ 8. For a product, where the mixing of several components or the addition of a solvent is prescribed, a code number must be established, both for the product alone and for the ready-to-use mixture.
Sect. 2. For a product, where use at a certain temperature is prescribed, a code number must be established, both for the product at room temperature and for the product at the prescribed temperature.
§ 9. If a product contains low-boiling liquids, and if a respirator must be used as protection against the inhalation hazard when working with the product, the packaging or the communication about the code number must also include information about this needing to be a self-contained respirator.
Chapter 3 - Use
§ 10. A product, including the ready-to-use mixture, may not be used without the code number for the product being indicated, cf. chapter 2. The indication provided should be accessible to employees.
§ 11. A product may not be used, if, in its ready-to-use state – the product has higher numbers in the code number than those indicated in appendix 2 for the particular workflow.
Sect. 2. The order in sect. 1 may be waived when other legislation imposes special requirements regarding the properties of the surface or the completed work.
§ 12. A product may not be used, if, for the intended use, it could be replaced by a non-hazardous, less hazardous or less irritating product. Therefore, you normally have to use the product with the lowest possible code number in its ready-to-use state.
Sect. 2. When using a replacement product will result in not insignificant differences in technical properties or cost, a comprehensive evaluation must be done, weighing technical and financial consequences against health and safety considerations.
Sect. 3. The company’s Occupational Health and Safety organization must be involved in determining, whether a replacement can be made.
Sect. 4. If a replacement cannot be done under sect. 1, or if use of the product cannot be omitted because a comprehensive evaluation according to sect. 2 shows that using a replacement product will result in unreasonable additional costs for the employer, documentation for this must be provided to the Working Environment Authority upon request.
Chapter 4 – Safety Precautions
§ 13. When working with the products, those safety precautions indicated in the appendices to this order must be taken as a minimum.
Sect. 2. In connection with preparing for and finishing the work, those safety precautions indicated in the appendices to this order must be taken as a minimum, in order to address health hazards from dust and combustible products.
§ 14. Hot surfaces with a temperature above 35°C must be cooled if this can take place without unreasonable additional expense or inconvenience. When working on hot surfaces, the safety precautions are determined based on the code number with the number before the hyphen being increased to the nearest higher number. Furthermore, a respirator must always be used in the form of a full facemask.
§ 15. After completing each individual job with the products, and until the applied products are dried or cured to such an extent that the risk of harmful effects has passed, safety precautions must still be followed, cf. § 13.
§ 16. Where it is necessary for several employees to work with the products simultaneously, close enough to each other that there is a risk of hazardous effects in addition to those that can be ascribed to each individual’s own work, sufficient safety precautions must be taken to address the health hazard.
Sect. 2. Other employees than those working with the products or doing necessary work in connection therewith, may not be exposed to hazardous exposure from this work.
§ 17. For the individual employee, working with a respirator may not exceed either 6 hours in one workday when using a self-contained respirator, or 3 hours in one workday when using filter respirator. In especially taxing situations due to the nature of the job, temperatures, etc., the amount of time must be decreased. Working with a respirator may not take place continuously.
Sect. 2. If it is estimated when organizing the work that the employee’s work using a filter respirator will last longer than the time limit established in sect. 1, a self-contained respirator must be used from the very beginning of the work. If the work is so physically challenging that breathing through a filter mask becomes difficult due to resistance, a self-contained respirator must be used.
§ 18. A bottle of eye was must be kept in an easily accessible place for first aid in case of an emergency.
§ 19. When doing paintwork covered in appendix 2 and appendix 3, and if the work is not being done at a yard, appendix 4, section a, sinks with running water must be available along with appropriate skin cleansers, including soap, and appropriate skin creams.
§ 20. At fixed work places, where work is done that is covered by appendix 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7, there needs to be access to a sensible number of sinks with hot and cold water.
Sect. 2. If spraying or work is done with products that have the numbers 3, 4, 5, or 6 after the hyphen in the code number at work sites subject to sect. 1, changing rooms must be installed with separate storage for street clothes and work clothes, and in the immediate vicinity of the changing room, there needs to be a well-ventilated shower room with sinks and shielded showers with hot and cold water.
Sect. 3. Furthermore, there needs to be access to sinks with hot and cold water within a safe distance from where the work is done.
Sect. 4. Sinks must be supplied with appropriate skin cleansers, including soap, and appropriate skin creams.
§ 21. Furthermore, the work places must be arranged according to the orders about lay-outs of fixed workplaces, lay-outs of changing workplaces, and lay-outs of constructions sites and the like, respectively, to the extend the workplaces are covered by these.
Chapter 5 - Exemptions
§ 22. The Director of the Working Environment Authority can allow exemptions from regulations in this order under certain conditions, when this is deemed reasonable and completely safe.
Sect. 2. The Director of the Working Environment Authority can authorize inspectors to allow exemptions from § 11, §§ 13-14, § 17, §§ 19-20 on a case-by-case basis, when this is deemed reasonable and completely safe.
Chapter 6 - Redress
§ 23. The decision of the Working Environment Authority based on the order can be appealed in accordance with § 81 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
Chapter 7 - Penalties
§ 24. Unless a more severe penalty is warranted according to the Occupational Health and Safety Act or other legislation, anyone is subject to fines or imprisonment who
1. violates §§ 6-10, § 11, sect. 1, § 12, sect. 1, and §§ 13-20,
2. fails to comply with orders or prohibitions issued in accordance with the order,
3. disregards conditions for permits in accordance with the order.
Sect. 2. For violating §§ 6-10, § 11, sect. 1, and §§ 13-20, a fine may be imposed on an employer, even if the violation cannot be attributed to him willfully disregarding it or being negligent. There shall be no alternative sentence for the fine.
Sect. 3. If a violation is committed by a public company, a cooperative, a limited liability company, or the like, a fine may be imposed on the company as such. If the violation is committed by the state, a municipality, or a municipal cooperative subject to § 60 in the Local Government Act, a fine may be imposed on the state, a municipality, or a municipal cooperative.
Chapter 8 – Effectiveness and Transitional regulations
§ 25. This order will enter into effect on 1 September 1993.
Sect. 2. At the same time, Working Environment Authority order no. 463 of 3 August 1982 regarding professional painting is repealed along with subsequent regulations in Working Environment Authority order no. 611 of 18 December 1985 about rules from the former worker protection legislation, which remains in effect with minor changes after the Occupational Health and Safety Act goes into effect: Under 3, B. orders 25): Working Environment Authority order no. 67 of 8. February 1974 about prohibition against using certain adhesives in construction work at temporary work sites.
§ 26. Products, for which a code number has been established pursuant to Working Environment Authority order no. 464 of 3 August 1982 regarding establishing code numbers for products covered under Working Environment Authority order about professional painting, however, may be delivered until 1 September 1994 labeled with this code number (code number without specifying the year for the code number order. It is a condition, however, that the code number for the product pursuant to order no. 301 of 13. May 1993 regarding assignment of code numbers is otherwise communicated in writing.
Sect. 2. Until 1 April 1995, using products delivered before 1 September 1994 is permissible if marked with a code number without specifying the year for the code number order. It is a condition, however, that the code number for the product pursuant to order no. 301 of 13. May 1993 regarding assignment of code numbers is communicated and taken into account when using the product, etc.
§ 27. It is permissible to use existing spray boxes and spray booths that do not meet the requirements according to schedule VII.1 and schedule VII.2, respectively, until 1 January 1994.